SuM4All is taking actions and getting better
作者:by Tao Runyuan             来源:远洋海运网            发布时间:2018-08-17



SuM4All is taking actions and getting better

——an interview with Ph. D Nancy Vandycke, lead economic expert and advisor of Transport & ICT of World Bank Group


  Tao Runyuan


As SuM4All's influence expands, more and more organizations and agencies join the initiative to apply experience to action and reach consensus on how to achieve sustainable mobility.


Nancy Vandycke



“To achieve sustainable mobility, we must first understand the needs and contributions of each global stakeholder, and then find ways to coordinate the interests of all parties and meet the requirements of all parties.” Dr. Nancy Vandycke, Chief Economist, Department of Transportation and Digital Development, World Bank Group, told the reporter that the World Bank Group is a specialized and independent agency, part of the United Nations system operating international financial services. Two international advocacy programs led by the Bank, “Sustainable Mobility for All” and “Carbon Pricing Leadership Alliance” recently decided to work together to support the shipping industry. The goal is to help the industry achieve sustainable development by building an evolving alliance of maritime interests, where all stakeholders can explore, discuss and evaluate the feasibility of reducing carbon emissions. The “Sustainable Mobility for All” (SuM4All) Initiative played a key role in the initiation of this process.

During the 2018 World Transportation Congress, the reporter of Maritime China interviewed with Dr. Nancy Vandycke, who leads the Sustainable Mobility for All initiative on behalf of the World Bank.



Maritime China: SuM4All started in January 2016. Many people still don't know much about it. Can you talk about the role of SuM4All in developing a sustainable transportation action framework?

Nancy Vandycke: In the current international context, a binding framework of action is unlikely to be supported by all countries in the international community. Therefore, the development of a framework based on voluntary compliance is the basis for obtaining support from relevant governments. This seems to be the most realistic and a relatively constructive first step. Such an approach can help generate the necessary political will and mutual trust for a broader agreement.
In order to begin the development of a sustainable transport action framework, SuM4All is actively engaging with all stakeholders who need to be mobilized, including UN agencies, programmes and regional commissions, Global Civil Society Organizations, non-governmental organizations and policy makers in the countries. The development of an international plan of action requires the participation of international decision makers as well as at the country level – from ministers of transport and urban development to foreign affairs ministers, prime ministers or presidents.
In order to better align and determine goals, these decision makers should be fully aware about the issues and challenges, and engage in data- and fact-based dialogue. A key step is to explain the deficiencies in transportation development, how to support individual countries and global communities, and identify possible solutions. Several regional organizations and the United Nations regional committees have shown broad leadership in the formulation of transport policies and are determined to contribute to the development of a global sustainable transport framework. For example, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is an important body for the United Nations to develop transport-related treaties and has been a pioneer in the development of transport environmental standards in Europe. Similarly, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) has played an important role in developing traffic standards in the region and negotiating road and rail transport treaties. Beyond the UN System, the European Union (EU) also has extensive experience in this field.


Maritime China: What results have the SuM4All initiative achieved so far?

Nancy Vandycke: A series of international agreements have recently provided useful benchmarks, including the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 (Agenda 21), United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20), Sustainable Development Goal (aka SDGs), New Urban Agenda, Vienna Landlocked National Programme of Action and Paris Climate Agreement, United Nations Global Sustainable Transport Conference. In order to maximize the impact of these efforts, it is time to combine all of these components into a single, detailed and action-oriented strategy.
SuM4All partners have embarked on a sustainable transport action framework, and more and more organizations and organizations have joined the initiative to apply experience to action and reach consensus on how to achieve sustainable mobility. The first draft of our "Global Transport Roadmap of Action" was discussed during the Leipzig International Transport Forum in May this year and will also be reviewed at the next Consortium meeting of SuM4All. This will provide a starting point for actively cooperating with relevant governments and responding to mobility crises that cannot be ignored globally. The initiative is working to improve the image of sustainable transport in the global development agenda and to unite the international community around an accessible, efficient, safe and green transport vision.
The issue of mobility and sustainability resonates with the concerns of countries. Recent United Nations resolutions have focused on the role of transport and transit corridors in sustainable development, demonstrating the dependence and importance of governments around the world on transport and mobility issues.


Maritime China: For many years, the transportation sector has been looking for solutions to reduce its carbon footprint. Shipping has always been considered the most environmentally friendly mode of transport, but why is maritime emissions a global priority now?

Nancy Vandycke: Solving emissions problems in the shipping industry is just as important as other modes of transportation. First, ships carry around 80 percent of the world trade volume, and 70 percent of its value. In addition, although shipping is considered to be the most energy efficient mode of transportation, it still uses a large amount of so-called marine fuels, which are by-products of crude oil refining and cause significant damage to the environment. Several major global companies are now calling on the maritime sector to accept the challenges of the status quo and work to control its impact on the climate.
From our perspective, there are at least three main reasons why maritime emissions are becoming a global priority. The first is the challenge of rising emissions. If the shipping industry is seen as an independent country, it would be the world's sixth largest emitter of greenhouse gases between Japan and Germany. Although the industry's share of global emissions is currently between 2% and 3%, demand for shipping is soaring and emissions are increasing. From 2015 to 2016 alone, this is the slowest year in more than a decade, but the growth of the global fleet is still more than 3.5%. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates that shipping carbon emissions may increase by 50%-250%. Second, the international aviation and international shipping sectors are not part of the climate change objectives set out in the Paris Agreement. Therefore, these two industries are not included in the national climate action plans submitted by countries, and are often referred to as Voluntary Commitment. In 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted its International Aviation Carbon Offset and Emission Reduction Program (CORSIA) to address carbon emissions on international flights. If the shipping industry cannot take corresponding measures or plans, it is estimated that by 2050, the shipping industry's carbon emissions will account for 10%-17% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Keeping global warming below 2 °C poses a major threat. Controlling the major emissions coming from shipping is therefore extremely important for the overall success of climate action. If this cannot be achieved, how can we expect other poor and vulnerable countries understand and act on their targets? When the industry is exempt from obligations, other sectors may be less inclined to proactively address climate change. The third is to open the window of opportunity. The pressure on the international maritime industry has been increasing in recent years. For example, in February 2017 the European Parliament voted in favor of including shipping in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) by 2023, unless the International Maritime Organization itself proposed similar climate regulations. In this context, the International Maritime Organization has pledged in April 2018 to adopt the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and also conduct the first global inventory measurement on the progress of climate action in the sector, followed by a revision of the climate strategy of the International Maritime Organization in 2023.

(With support from Hong Yang, Research Assistant from SuM4All)






SuM4All渐入佳境
——对话世界银行交通和数字发展部首席经济顾问Nancy Vandycke博士

陶润元


随着“全民可持续交通”(SuM4All)倡导计划组织影响力的扩大,越来越多的组织和机构加入了此项倡导计划;从而将自己的经验转化为行动力,并且争取在可持续交通上达成共识。


“要实现可持续交通运输发展,首先要弄明白全球利益相关者的需求和贡献,然后采取措施来协调各方利益、满足各方要求。”世界银行交通和数字发展部首席经济学家Nancy Vandycke博士告诉记者,世界银行是联合国经营国际金融业务的专门机构,同时也是联合国的一个下属机构。世界银行参与了两个国际倡导计划组织:“全民可持续交通”和“碳排放定价领导者联盟”。这两家组织近期决定联手支持航运业,因为实现航运业可持续发展的关键是建立起一个不断发展的海事利益者联盟,并且所有利益相关者能够一起探索、讨论、评估减少碳排放的可行性和策略。“全民可持续交通” (Sustainable Mobility for All,缩写SuM4All)倡导计划组织在启动这一过程中起着关键作用。在2018世界交通运输大会期间,本刊记者专访了Nancy Vandycke博士。


《中国远洋海运》:SuM4All尽管在2016年已启动,但很多人还不太了解,请您谈谈其在制定可持续交通行动框架方面能够起到什么作用?

Nancy Vandycke:在目前的国际背景下,具有约束力的行动框架不大可能得到广大国际社会的支持。不过,基于自愿遵守的框架则更容易获得国家政府的支持,这似乎是最现实的,并且是相对具有建设性的第一步。这种做法最终将有助于为广大的国际社会带来必要的政治意愿和相互信任,以促成一项具有法律约束力的安排。
为了制定可持续交通行动框架,SuM4All正在积极与所有需要调动的利益相关者进行接触。其中有联合国相关部门和项目(UN agencies, programmes and regional commissions)、国际民间社会组织(Global Civil Society Organizations), 非政府组织(Non-governmental organizations)和国内决策者——从运输部长、外交部长或城市发展部长到总理、总统等高级官员。采取步骤告知这些决策者我们的想法并确保他们寻求相同的目标并开展基于数据和事实为基础的对话。
为了实现这一目标,关键是要阐述交通部门的不足之处,对个别国家和全球社区的影响,并找出可能的解决方案。联合国的相关部门和机构表示,一些区域组织和联合国区域委员会在制定交通政策方面表现出了广泛的领导作用,并决心为全球可持续交通框架做出巨大贡献。例如,联合国欧洲经济委员会(UNECE)是联合国制定运输相关条约的唯一重要机构,并且一直是欧洲地区制定运输环境标准的先驱。欧盟(EU)在该领域也有丰富的经验。同样,联合国亚太经社理事会(UNESCAP)在制定该地区交通标准、协商公路及铁路运输条约方面也发挥了重要作用。


《中国远洋海运》:截至目前,SuM4All倡议有何成果?


Nancy Vandycke:最近一系列国际协定提供了有用的基准,其中包括“里约宣言”(Rio Declaration) 和“21世纪议程” (Agenda 21)、里约+20成果 (United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20)、可持续发展目标(Sustainable Development Goal, aka SDGs)、新城市议程 (New Urban Agenda)、维也纳内陆国家行动纲领和巴黎气候协议(UNFCCC)、联合国全球可持续交通会议(Global Sustainable Transport Conference)。为了最大限度地发挥这些协定的影响力,现在应该将所有这些内容组合成一个统一的、详细的和面向行动的战略。SuM4All合作伙伴已经着手制定一个可持续交通行动框架。
随着SuM4All的影响力的扩大,越来越多的机构和组织也加入了倡议,从而将经验应用到行动上,并就如何实现可持续的交通达成共识。我们的“全球交通行动日程(Global Transport Roadmap of Action)”第一稿在今年5月德国莱比锡国际交通论坛期间进行了讨论,同时也将在下一次的SuM4All指导委员会上进行讨论。这将为与各国政府积极配合并为应对全球无法忽视的全球流动性危机提供起点。该倡议正在努力提高全球发展议程中可持续交通的形象,并围绕公平、高效、安全和绿色的运输愿景联合国际社会。
流动性和可持续性问题与各国的担忧产生共鸣。最近的联合国决议侧重于运输和过境走廊在可持续发展中的作用,这表明世界各国政府对运输和流动问题的依赖与重视。


《中国远洋海运》:多年来,运输部门一直在寻求解决方案来减少其碳的足迹。但是,海运一直被认为是最节能的运输方式,为什么海运排放正成为全球优先考虑的问题?


Nancy Vandycke:解决海运业的排放问题与其他运输方式一样重要。首先,国际海运量占世界贸易量的80%、贸易总额的70%。此外,虽然海运被认为是最节能的运输方式,但它仍然使用大量的传统船用燃料,这些都是原油精炼的副产品,会对环境造成重大影响。现在几个主要的全球企业正在呼吁海事部门接受现状的挑战并努力控制其对气候的影响。
从我们的角度看,至少有三个主要原因可以解释为什么海运排放正成为全球优先考虑的问题。一是排放量上升的挑战。如果把海运业看成是一个独立的国家,它将成为日本和德国之间的全球第六大温室气体排放国。虽然该行业在全球排放中的份额目前在2%-3%,但对海运的需求正在飙升,排放量也在增加。虽然2015年到2016年是十多年来最慢的一年,全球船队的增长仍然超过3.5%。国际海事组织(IMO)估计航运的碳排放量截至2050年可能增加50%-250%。二是公平的必要条件。国际航空和国际海运都不属于“巴黎协定”规定的气候变化目标的一部分。因此,这两个具体行业是巴黎协定之后各国提交的国家气候行动计划中未包括的行业,通常称为国家自主贡献(Voluntary Commitment) 。2016年,国际民用航空组织(ICAO)通过了其国际航空碳抵消和减排计划(CORSIA),以解决国际航班的碳排放问题 。如果海运业不能针对这个计划采取相应的措施,预计到2050年,海运业的碳排放量将占全球温室气体排放量的10%-17%,这将对“巴黎协定”中全球变暖保持在2°C以下的目标构成重大威胁。从政治角度看,控制海运主要的排放国对气候行动的整体成功也具有极其重要的意义。如果不对行业进行尽职调查,那么我们如何能够期望其他贫穷和脆弱的国家了解它们,并针对此采取行动?当这个行业免除任何义务时,我们如何期望其他交通工具能够积极主动地应对气候变化?三是开启机会之窗。国际海运业的压力近年来一直在增加。例如,2017年2月,欧洲议会投票赞成,自2023年起在欧盟排放交易体系中纳入海运,除非国际海事组织自行提出类似的气候法规。在此背景下,国际海事组织已承诺,在2018年4月通过温室气体减排初始战略,即执行联合国气候变化框架公约,进行首次全球库存量测量工作,以衡量气候行动的进展,随后将在2023年修订国际海事组织的战略。

(本文得到SuM4All助理研究员杨泓女士的大力帮助)